WoodLtdŽ Studio
Definitions Encyclopedia Dictionary Terminology


q Active Door q French Door / Arch Top q Raised Panel
q Arch Door q Garage Overhead Door q Rough Opening
q Bore q Hinges q Round Top
q Caming q Jambs q Sidelight
q Carving q Kiln-Drying q Slab
q Casing q Layout q Stained Glass
q Certificate of Authenticity q Lintel q T-Astragal
q Cylinder Bore q Measure Rectangle Door q Teak
q Dead Bold q Measure Arched Door q Taengwood
q Door Types q Molding q Transom
q Door Shutter q Muntons q Quality
q Finishing q Out-Swing (Garage) q Unit
q Flush Bolts q Orientation q Wood Species
q Frame q Ornament
q French Door q Pre-Hung


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Active Door: The door people use every time they enter or leave the office or house. When there are double doors, it is the door that opens with an entry set knob or lever. The other door is called the inactive door and opens when the flush bolts are released.

Door Anatomy I Door Anatomy II

Antique Brass: Finish on hardware that has a brown color.

Arch Door: Door with arched top rail and arched frame. Called also "Round Top Door"

Single Arch Door Arch Double Door
Single Arch Door Arch Double Door

Backset: The distance from the edge of the door to the center of the hole drilled for your entry set knob, lever or deadbolt.

Bore: The diameter of the hole drilled in a door for an entry set knob, lever or deadbolt. (Standard cylinder bore - see Machining)

Brick mold: Exterior trim that covers seam between jamb and wall.

Caming: Metal parts of the glass design. Metal options include lead, brass, copper, zinc (silver), or patina (black).

Carving: Authentic hand carving by best Thailands craftsmen. No routers, no machine tools are used. Over 4,000 carving styles available for doors frames casing and lintels in many categories such as Americana patriotic American eagle USA state POW embassy consulate president flag animal horse bird lion tiger eagle bear dog elephant rhino Pegasus unicorn peacock deer Asian Chinese Indian Hindu Japanese Korean corporate pattern business commercial company logo emblem crest monogram name initial Disney drawing classic character Mickey Mouse Pluto Pinocchio dragon European Asian Chinese Indian American Hindu mythology god goddess angel gargoyle beast chimera religious mermaid warrior nautical topics dolphin blue whale killer whale sailboat yacht fish wildlife outdoor carving flower tree country farm nature hunting fishing flying sailing human models woman man erotic nude child architectural style Renaissance Victorian Moroccan Mexican Egyptian Persian Roman Greek Gothic Indian Arabic Thai Khmer Asian Oriental Chinese Japanese Hindu and more... [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Carving Design Custom Carving Door Carving
Carving Design Custom Carving Door Carving

Casing: A wooden trim around doors that covers seam between jamb and wall. It has a strong impact on the overall style, appearance, and proportion of door opening as well as the overall style of your home's interior. On the practical side, it conceals the gap between the door frame (called a jamb) and the rough opening and helps to hold the frame in the opening. Casing can be relatively plain such as square-edge design or detailed, such as colonial-style, French-style, Asian-style or Mexican-style molding.


Casing > carved/decorative

casing-101 casing-102 casing-103 casing-104

Certificate of Authenticity :: Every door we design and make is by order only. This is an original and authentic product. It is genuine and the only one made by WoodLtd Studio. It is not a replica, a rebuild or repair; it has been newly built by skilled artisan. No two doors are identical, thus making each one of a kind. Only authentic hand carving is performed, no routers or machine tools of any type are used. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Certificate of Authenticity

Certificate of Authenticity

Custom Glass: Original pattern of beveled and stained glass panels.

Cylinder Bore: Refers to a machining procedure that requires a round hole to accommodate a standard entry set.

Deadbolt: Locking mechanism for an entrance door or other door. Deadbolts can be a single cylinder or double cylinder. With a single cylinder deadbolt, a key is used on the outside and is turned by hand on the inside. With a double cylinder deadbolt, a key is used on both sides. Double cylinders are only recommended where no one needs to go through a door in case of an emergency.

Door Types: There are four (4) general types of doors based on door shape:

Round Top Single Door Round Top Double Door Rectangular Single Door Rectangular Double Door
Round Top (SD) Round Top (DD) Rectangular (SD) Rectangular (DD)

Door Shutter: A place where double door meet together





Door Finishing 69 KB

(1) 12-Step PermaLane II Finish System
(2) Penetrating wiping stained sets the color
(3) Three Separate coats of alkyd moisture seal with fine sanding between coats
(4) Two coats of imported from Germany Bayer Brand catalyzed Poly-Urethane with ultraviolet absorbers. Light sanding between coats
(5) stained brightener applied

Door Finishing (69 KB)

(6) Detailed hand rubbed to smooth satin finish

Flush Bolts: Bolts mounted in a door to lock a door in place. These bolts slide up into the jamb above the door and down into the threshold or floor below the door. They are primarily used on double doors where one door is locked in place and the other door is the one mainly used (active door). When needed the door locked in place with the flush bolts can be opened. Flush bolts are housed in a T-Astragal. Examples below... [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Flush Bolt Flush Bolt Flush Bolt
Flush Bolt Flush Bolt Flush Bolt

Frame: The set of jambs that holds the door unit together. The door is pre-hung in the frame.

French Door: A door with glass panels separated by wood Muntons (one light, five light, six light, eight light, ten light or fifteen light)

French Door One (1) Light French Door Six (6) Light French Door Eight (8) Light French Door Ten (10) Light
One (1) Light Six (6) Light Eight (8) Light Ten (10) Light

French Door / Arch Top: Door with arched top rail and arched frame.

Arch Top French Door
Arch Top French Door

Garage Overhead Door: garage door is a large door on a garage that can either be opened manually or by a garage door opener. Although of many designs, most garage doors are sectional, upward acting and self storing. Garage doors are necessarily large to allow passage automobiles and trucks.

Garage Door Overhead Door Door Interlock (mm) Overhead Interlock (inch)
Garage Door Overhead Door Door Interlock (mm) Overhead Interlock (inch)

A common material for a new garage door is a solid teak or a mild steel sheet roll formed to look like a raised panel wood door. The garage door may be sprung by a torsion or extension spring to counterbalance the weight of the door. An up-and-over door is often used in garages. Instead of hinges it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, that allows it to be lifted so that it rests horizontally above the opening. Also known as an overhead door.

Hinges: The metal objects that attach your door to the jamb, normally with screws. They can be made from brass, steel, metal or other metals. Hinge is a mechanical device that connects two solid objects, allowing rotation between them. Hinges may be made of flexible material or of moving components.


Description: Heavy-Duty Hinges
Brand Name: COLT
Material: Solid Brass
Reference Number: A3
Size: 4" X 4" PB
Quantity per Pack: Two (2) Hinges per Pack
Price in Thai Baht (2005): 505- THB for a pack of two hinges
Single Door Installation: Six (6) Hinges per one Door Slab
Double Door Installation: Twelve (12) Hinges per one Double Door
Source: Home Product Center Thailand

WoodCiti(R) Hinges

URL: http://www.homepro.co.th/

There are many types of door hinge. Four main types include: (1) Butt/Mortise Hinges, usually in threes or fours, which are inset (mortised) into the door and frame. Most residential hinges in the U.S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for out-swing doors are often made of brass or stainless steel base to prevent corrosion, (2) Continuous Hinges, which run the entire length of the door (also known as a "Piano Hinge"), (3) Pivot Hinges which pivot in openings in the floor and the top of the door frame. Also referred to as a double-acting floor hinge, (4) Concealed Hinges used for furniture doors (with or without self closing feature, with or without dampening systems) they are made of 2 parts, 1 part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Other types include Butterfly or Parliament (UK) Hinge, Counterflap Hinge, Flush Hinge, Coach Hinge, Rising Butt Hinge, Double action spring hinge, Tee Hinge, Friction Hinge, Security Hinge, Cranked or 'Stormproof' Hinge and Lift-off Hinges...

In swing: When the door opens into the house when opened.

Jambs: The wood that surrounds the door unit. This is your frame to which the door unit (door, doors, and/or doors and sidelights) is attached. Jamb is a part of a door frame that runs vertically between the header and sill. Jamb extensions or casing can be used to create a frame that matches the depth of existing walls. The top member of a door frame consists of a head jamb, two side jambs and a threshold or sill. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Kiln-Drying: The wood is kiln dried for 2 weeks to a moisture content of 10-12% and has an additional week or so of "resting" to allow the wood to reabsorb moisture in the air. This process ensures that the wood regains its dimensional stability and will not warp or split. This critical stage of reabsorbing moisture allows the doors to withstand the rigors of climatic change.

Knob: Round part of door handle that you hold with your hand. The knob can be made of brass, porcelain, steel, glass, metal or other products.

Layout: Design plan (detailed arrangement) of rails, mullions, panels, stiles, casing, ornaments, lintels and carving

layout-101 layout-102 layout-103 layout-104

Left-Hand: Term used to describe which way a door is hung on the jamb. As viewed from outside, the side the hinges are on and the door swings into the house.

Left Swing Door

Left Swing Door

Lever: Has the same function as a knob, except is longer and thinner. To open a door, levers are pushed down. Beside the decorative uses of a lever, they are also used in applications where someone is handicapped and cannot grasp a knob very well.

Lintel: Decorative carving on the wall just above the door. Lintels are made in teak, taeng wood, monkey wood, gypsum, sandstone, terra-cotta, cement and in fiberglass. All lintels are made on special orders only..

lintel-101 lintel-102 lintel-103 lintel-104

Machining: The preparation for the entry set so that it will operate properly in the door. (see Bore and Mortise). [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Measure Rectangle Door

Measuring a Door (slab):

To determine the size of your replacement door you will need to measure exactly your old door. For double door taking measurement of one slab is sufficient. We only need three (3) numbers. You should take a width, height and thickness of your old door and send to us by email.

Door (slab) Measurement Rough Opening Size
Door (slab) Measurement Rough Opening Size

Measuring a Rough Opening:

For pre-hung doors and entire entrance units requiring a jambs or frames, we need the measurements of your rough opening. Rough opening measurements are to be taken both horizontally and vertically.

It is easiest to do this when there is no door installed. If a pre-hung door or old entrance unit occupies the current rough opening the measurements should be taken only after removing any and all casing and moldings which will prevent you from seeing the actual rough opening surrounding the door.

Measure the actual wall opening in which pre-hung door will be installed. Measure the opening's width across the empty space. After that, measure the opening's height as well as the wall thickness. The wall thickness is needed to determine depth of door jambs. Your door will be made approximately 3/16" smaller on the width and " shorter on the height of your actual measurements. It'll minimize the amount of trimming (if any) you or your builder will have to perform during the installation process. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Measure Arched (round top) Door

Measuring an Arch Door (slab):

To measure arched or round top door is a little more involved than standard rectangle doors.

  1. First take your standard (Width) measurement of the slab.
  2. Then you must measure your height from the bottom up to the beginning of the arch (Height B).
  3. Next measure the height from the bottom to the peak of the arch in the very middle (Height A).
  4. Using a Kraft paper (cardboard or poster board) trace a simple but precise pattern of the arch or round top opening. Trace the arch at the location on your existing jamb where the arched top of the door will actually occupy when in the closed position.

This pattern on paper will need to be mailed to us. This will insure that you door will fit precisely into your existing opening. Please feel free to contact us. We will be happy to work with you on any of these details.

Arched Door Size Rough Opening Measurement
Arched Door Size Rough Opening Measurement

Measuring an Arch Rough Opening:

Provide template: Make an exact duplicate of door rough opening. Usually two persons are required to make a good template.

Kraft Paper Method:

  1. First take your standard (Width) measurement of the opening across the empty space.
  2. Then you must measure your height from the bottom up to the beginning of the arch (Height B).
  3. Next measure the height from the bottom to the peak of the arch in the very middle (Height A).
  4. Using a Kraft paper (cardboard or poster board) trace a simple but precise pattern of the arch or round top opening. Trace the arch along the wall where the arched top pre-hung door unit will actually be placed.

This pattern on paper will need to be mailed to us. It will insure that your pre-hung door will fit precisely into the existing opening.

In addition to we require a measurement of the wall thickness. The wall thickness is needed to determine depth of door jambs. Your door will be made approximately 3/16" smaller on the width and " shorter on the height of your actual measurements. It'll minimize the amount of trimming (if any) you or your builder will have to perform during the installation process. Please feel free to contact us. We will be happy to work with you on any of these details.

Tip: One Person should hold a large sheet of heavy Kraft paper across arch top of a door. Cellophane tape can be use to aid in stretching Kraft paper tightly over front site. Or, the paper can be taped to plywood or stiff cardboard while marking, then be removed before mailing it to us. A second person marks outline of edge of door opening with a soft pencil as accurately as possible. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Molding: A decorative wooden strip used for ornamentation, carving or finishing.


Mortise: An elaborate machining process for special entry sets called a mortise lock.

Mull cap: Interior and exterior trim for seam between door and sidelight.

Muntons: Wooden trim that holds panels of glass in the door which makes a style of a French door, such a five light, ten light, etc. A door or window with panels of glass separated by muntons. Teakwood muntons (muttons) bar window with clear beveled glass in between.

Teak Muntons

Teak Muntons

Ornament: Additional decorative accessory made in wood or metal (not a door hardware) which adds a unique grace and beauty, a manner of very special quality that adorns. It is an accent whose virtues or graces add luster to the door.

ornament-101 ornament-102 ornament-103 ornament-104

Out swing: When the door swings to the outside of the house when opened. Commonly used in garage doors. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Garage Door | Right Hand Out-Swing

Right Hand Out-Swing Door


Door Direction

Door Direction Double Door Orientation Door Shutter Single Door Orientation

Door Orientation

Door Shutter

Pre-Hung: Doors or combinations of doors and sidelights put together with jambs, hinges, threshold, T-Astragal, and trim to make a total working door system (a unit).

Pre-Hung Door

Pre-Hung Door

Right-Hand: Term used to describe which way a door is hung on the jamb. As viewed from the outside, the side the hinges are on and the door swings into the house.

Right Swing Door

Right Swing Door

Raised Panel Door: The door made of a thick solid teak frame and a center panel. The door requires edge treatments such as stile/rail, panel and outside edge profiles. The raised panel is located in the frame and is usually cut with a beveled or cove profile to make the center stand proud giving it's raised effect. These panels must float as well within the frame to keep the panel from splitting and/or the door from blowing apart.

Raised Panel (1) Raised Panel (2) Raised Panel (3) Raised Panel (4)
Raised Panel Door (a) Raised Panel Door (b) Raised Panel Door (c) Raised Panel Door (d)

Rough Opening: Opening in the wall for your door and/or sidelights before any framing material has been applied. This space must be slightly larger then total size of the door and frame together.

Rough Opening for Single Door

Rough Opening for Double Door

Rough Opening (Single Door)

Rough Opening (Double Door)

Round Top: Door with round top rail or transom.

Round Top

Round Top

Sidelight: Fixed panel of wood and glass next to door. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

One Sidelight / Single Door Two Sidelights / Double Door Two Sidelights / Single Door
One Sidelight (SD) Two Sidelights (DD) Two Sidelights (SD)

Slab: Door only or sidelight only. No frames, jambs or parts added to make door operate.

Door Slab - Single Door

Door Slabs - Double Door

Door Slab (SD)

Door Slab Door Slab (DD)

Stained Glass: is made from small and medium size pieces of glass joined together. In general doors and windows made of colored glass. To a large extent, the name is a misnomer, for staining is only one of the methods of coloring employed, and the best medieval glass made little use of it. Colored glass as window decoration is of great antiquity in East Asia. Muslim designers fitted small pieces of it into intricate window traceries of stone, wood, or plaster, and this type of window mosaic is still in use. Colored glass was used in windows of Christian churches as early as the 5th century and pictorial glass as early as the 10th century. With the development of medieval architecture, stained glass assumed a unique structural and symbolic importance. As the Romanesque massiveness of the wall was eliminated, the use of glass was expanded. It was integrated with the lofty vertical elements of Gothic architecture, thus providing greater illumination. Symbolically, it was regarded as a manifestation of divine light. In these transparent mosaics, biblical history and church dogmas were portrayed with great effectiveness. Resplendent in its material and spiritual richness, stained glass became one of the most beautiful forms of medieval artistic expression 

T-Astragal: Vertical piece of wooden molding that fits between double doors to provide an effective weather seal. It is attached to the inactive door of a double door unit. It houses the flush bolts. Blueprint and examples below [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Enlarge T-Astragal T-Astragal
T-Astragal T-Astragal

Genuine Burmese Teak: Latin name "Tectona Grandis Linn". Teakwood or Golden Teak is the king of hardwoods and it's one of the world's most valuable timbers, recognized for its durability and stability. Teak is more durable than any other hardwood and has unparalleled rich beauty. Teak can withstand all types of weather. Ancient Burmese and Thai royalty considered teak to be a royal tree. It has been the pillar of the shipbuilding industry for centuries. The decks of the Titanic were covered in Teak, and the wood is as good today as the day she sank on 1912. Teak is also used in the Middle East oil industry as one of the very few timbers that can withstand the punishing heat of the desert and will not readily catch fire. Teak can withstand harsh chemicals, and is resistant to fungi, rot and termites. Unlike other woods, teak does not turn black when in contact with metals. It looks best when applied transparent and light colors...

Teakwood (Teak) Tectona Grandis Linn
Teakwood (Teak) Tectona Grandis Linn

Teak is the common name for Tectona grandis, a large deciduous tree of the family Verbenaceae, or its wood, one of the most valuable timbers. Teak has been widely used in India for more than 2,000 years. The name teak is from the Malayan word tekka. The tree has a straight, but often buttressed, stem (i.e., thickened at the base), a spreading crown, and four-sided branch lets with large quadrangular pith. The leaves are opposite or sometimes whorled in young specimens, about 0.5 meter (1.5 feet) long and 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. In shape they resemble those of the tobacco plant, but their substance is hard and the surface rough. The branches terminate in many small white flowers in large, erect, cross-branched panicles. The fruit is a drupe (fleshy, with a stony seed), two-thirds of an inch in diameter. The bark of the stem is about 1.3 cm thick, gray or brownish gray, the sapwood white; the unseasoned heartwood has a pleasant and strong aromatic fragrance and a beautiful golden-yellow colour, which on seasoning darkens into brown, mottled with darker streaks. The timber retains its aromatic fragrance to a great age. Native to India, Burma, and Thailand, the tree grows as far north as about the 25th parallel in these areas and to the 32nd parallel in the Punjab. The tree is not found near the coast; the most valuable forests are on low hills up to about 3,000 feet. Stands are also found in the Philippines and in Java and elsewhere in the Malay Archipelago. Teak is also planted in Africa and Central America. During the dry season the tree is leafless; in hot localities the leaves fall in January, but in moist places the tree remains green until March. At the end of the dry season, when the first monsoon rains fall, the new foliage emerges. Although the tree flowers freely, few seeds are produced because many of the flowers are sterile. The forest fires of the dry season after the seeds have ripened and have partly fallen, impede the spread of the tree by self-sown seed. Teak trees on good soil have attained an average height of 18 m in 15 years, with a girth, breast high, of 0.5 m. In the natural forests teak timber with a girth of about 2 m (diameter of 0.6 m) is never less than 100 and often more than 200 years old. Mature trees are usually not more than 150 ft high. Due to the oil and rubber found naturally in the wood, teak has a greater ability to withstand the elements than any other wood. For this reason it has been the preferred choice for boats, and in fact, it has been used on aircraft carrier decks! This is because of its ability to resist splintering, warping and rotting. (If left un-oiled, our furniture will turn a soft dove gray when allowed to remain outdoors. This process will take approximately one year.) Teak timber is valued in warm countries principally for its extraordinary durability. The timber is practically imperishable under cover. Teakwood is well know since early/ancient times as a valuable resource due to its long life reliability and weather resistance as well as its workable qualities. Pieces of teak have been found (in India) over 200 years old and still intact. Teakwood is used for shipbuilding, fine furniture, door and window frames, wharves, bridges, cooling-tower louvers, flooring, paneling, railway cars, and Venetian blinds. An important property of teak is its extremely good dimensional stability. It is strong, of medium weight, and of average hardness. Termites eat the sapwood but rarely attack the heartwood; it is not, however, completely resistant to marine borers. Teak also refers specifically to the wood and its characteristic color, which ranges from olive to yellowish gray or moderate brown. Teak furniture dates back prior to the 19th century used mainly by the Chinese for export to Europe. The Victorian era also incorporated the use of teakwood during the mechanical era of the 1840s with the invention of presses, veneer cutters etc which enabled them to create decorative elegant high class furniture. Another factor here is transportation (shipping) was also becoming more advanced. Burma produces most of the world's supply, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon) ranking next in production. [ BACK TO INDEX ]



Latin name "Shorea Obtusa". Taeng or Modulus of Elasticity is a hardwood grown in Malaysia and Indonesia. Natural color of the wood varies from dark reddish to mixture of yellow and white. Taeng is as hard as Mahogany therefore carving on Taeng is not as fine as on Teak. Taeng is about 30-40% less expensive than Teak. It has a coarse grain and provides a good durability. Taeng is not termite resistant by nature as Teak therefore protective chemicals are applied. Taeng looks best when stained in darker colors. [ BACK TO INDEX ]


Threshold: The part of the door unit which is attached to the floor under the door.

Transom: Fixed plain wood, carved wood or window light mounted in the wall above the door.

Transom - Single Door Transom - Double Door
Transom (SD) Transom (DD)

Quality: WoodLtd Door Studio is Thailand's only door designer, manufacturer and exporter which quality match US, Canadian and European standards, please see Door Specifications for details...

Unit: All parts needed to hang the door and/or sidelights. The parts include Jambs, Hinges, Weather-stripping, Casing, Brick mold, Threshold; Flush Bolts and a T-Astragal on double doors and a sweep on an in swing unit. [ BACK TO INDEX ]

Wood Species: Wood used to build doors and frames showing its hardness index. Comparison of Asian hardwoods with wood available in North America and Europe. ** WoodLtd Door Studio premier hardwoods

Wood Common Name Wood Latin Name Hardness Index
Makha Wood Afzelia Xylocarpa Craib 2600
Red Wood ** X. Kerii 2570
Asian Rosewood ** Pterocarpus Macrocarpus 2450
Taeng (Modulus of Elasticity) ** Shorea Obtusa 2200
Mahogany Melia Genus 2200
Pecan Hickory Carya Illinoinensis 1820
Bamboo Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii 1800
Maple Acer Macrophyllum 1450
White Oak Quercus Alba 1360
Teak (Teakwood) ** Tectona Grandis Linn 1150
Walnut Juglans Nigra 1010
Black Cherry Prunus Serotina 950
Rubber Wood Hevea Brasiliensis Muell Arg. 900
Monkey Wood Samanea Saman Merr. 760
Table Mountain Pine Pinus Pungens 690
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Updated 02-Mar-2006

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